Description and Symptoms
UTIs usually occur in the bladder (bacterial cystitis). Such infections may resolve themselves without medication. Symptoms include painful urination, a need to urinate frequently, dull pain in the pelvic area, and cloudy urine (which may have an unusually nasty smell). There can also be blood in the urine.
Other diseases can give similar symptoms, so always consult a physician if the symptoms don’t clear up quickly. Infections in the bladder can give rise to kidney infections. These are more serious, and can give dangerous complications in pregnancy. The symptoms of kidney infections are nausea (sometimes with vomiting), and pain in the back and sides. UTIs can remain unnoticed in babies and toddlers, or in dementia sufferers.
Causes of UTI
Bacteria, usually originating in the gut, are the main cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). These infections are more common in women than men. UTIs may be picked up in hospital, often when a catheter is used for urination. Risk factors for women include using spermicide and diaphragm contraceptives; some women tend to get infections after sexual intercourse. Men are more at risk if they have prostate conditions. Infections in the bladder are more common than those in the kidneys. Infection may spread from the bladder to the kidneys. An infection in the blood can sometimes spread to the kidneys.
Treatments: Antibiotics for UTI
Antibiotics are the main treatment for UTIs. Many antibiotics have become ineffective due to bacterial resistance, so it’s quite possible that the initial antibiotic prescribed won’t work. Another one will then have to be tried. You should always finish a course of antibiotics; bacteria are more likely to survive if the course is stopped prematurely.
Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole is a combination antibiotic, often used for urinary tract infections. It is sometimes referred to as co-trimoxazole. Common side-effects include slight fever, nausea, a rash, and diarrhea.
Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid is an antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections. Amoxicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic. Since bacteria are often resistant to such antibiotics, clavulanic acid is used in combination with amoxicillin in order to reduce the resistance. Possible side-effects include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and a skin rash.
Nitrofurantoin is a commonly-used antibiotic for urinary infections. It works against bacteria that are resistant to the normal β-lactam antibiotics. Common side-effects include diarrhea, nausea, and dizziness. It tends to make the urine darker, but this effect is harmless, so no need to panic. It should not be taken in cases of severe kidney disease.
Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, sometimes used to treat urinary tract infections. Common side-effects include nausea and diarrhea. The drug increases the risk of tendon problems, including tendon rupture, particularly in elderly patients. It should not be used by patients who suffer from the disease myasthenia gravis.
Norfloxacin is another fluroroquinolone antibiotic, similar to ciprofloxacin. It gives similar side-effects to ciprofloxacin. It also increases the risk of tendon problems and should not be used by those suffering from myasthenia gravis.
Methenamine doesn’t work in the same manner as conventional antibiotics, but undergoes chemical decomposition in the bladder to give formaldehyde, which eliminates the bacteria. Resistance does not take place. However, this medication only works when the urine is acidic. Since not everybody has sufficiently acidic urine, methenamine is not always effective. Methenamine may be taken along with compounds such as ammonium chloride or ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which are supposed to decrease the pH of the urine (make it more acidic). There is some doubt as to the efficiency of these acidifying agents.
Urine infections or cystitis are a common pathology, especially in women. In fact, it is estimated that about 60 percent of women have a urinary tract infection at some point in their life.
This condition is very annoying, so scientists recommend going to the doctor if a person presents symptoms suggestive of a urinary infection, such as the presence of itching or stinging when urinating, the need to urinate very frequently (the affected person can reach every ten minutes And on those occasions only to expel some droplets) or the possible association of fever with these symptoms.
“The treatment of choice for urine infections in antibiotics.It is important that before the choice of antibiotic is made a urine culture that identifies the microorganism causing the infection.According to José María Rodríguez Fernández, specialist in infectious diseases of the Service “The most important are the derivatives of penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or fosfomycin, although there are many more.”
The expert notes that all medications available to treat urine infection require the doctor to prescribe. In addition, it indicates that to avoid the appearance of resistant microorganisms the good administration of the antibiotic is very important because otherwise, if the antibiotic that is taken is incorrect, “we were able to select the bacteria resistant to drugs and it reduces the effectiveness of the antibiotics Matiza
Regarding the efficacy of antibiotics, Rodríguez Fernández specifies that it is usually high, although it depends on the type of infection and the level of severity. “For example, a kidney infection often requires administration of intravenous antibiotics to achieve high efficacy. On the other hand, in most cases of acute cystitis in a woman without previous pathology, administration Of a single dose of fosfomycin is very effective, “he explains.
Tips for preventing cystitis.
Drink plenty of water throughout the day and take vitamin C as it acidifies urine by preventing the growth of bacteria.
Use toilet paper from front to back; Otherwise, the anus bacteria can access the vagina or the urethra.
Shower instead of bathing, to avoid contact with dirty water.
Carefully clean the genital area after having sex.
Pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to urinary tract infections than other women (they only develop urinary tract infections between two and four percent of pregnant women). But if it is the case, it is easier for the infection to reach the kidneys, because hormonal changes and the position of the urinary tract during pregnancy can facilitate the passage of bacteria.