Trigonitis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

trigonitis definition

Trigonis refers to an inflammation of the inner region of the bladder, which sometimes may occur because of an infection. It often affects women

Being more specific, Trigonitis is a condition that consists of the inflammation of the vesical trigone.

The trigone is a triangular tissue at the base of the urinary bladder, demarcated by the internal opening of the urethra the orifices and two ureteric orifices.

Some medical experts stated that each point of this “triangle” correspond to the places where the ureters and the urethra connect to the bladder.

Thanks to the vesical trigone the human body can sense when the bladder is full because this region’s sensitivity responds to whenever the bladder expands, which only happens when fluids fill the organ.

Causes of trigonitis

Medical experts are not sure about what causes this disease. That is why many researchers put forward several theories to explain why Trigonitis occurs.

Since this disease mostly affects women in their childbearing years, some believe this condition could be related to hormonal imbalance.

The people who uphold this theory tend to highlight the fact that the few cases when Trigonitis affects men who have prostate cancer, which features a similar hormonal imbalance.

Other studies suggest a potential relationship between this condition and family history of bladder infections.

Some researchers concluded this based on how urinary and bladder infections cause chronic inflammation that could lead to Trigonitis.

Another potential cause is the insertion of a urinary catheter for a long time after a surgical procedure. That could cause chronic irritation which could lead to the development of Trigonitis too.

As of this day, medical experts merely have several theories but no definitive answers to what causes this disease.


Trigonitis causes a remarkable decrease in the bladder capacity. In some cases, the resulting discomfort will become more noticeable when trying to sit down or during sexual intercourse.

Some patients who suffer from this condition will experiment sensibility to specific foods, and when they eat such meals might trigger other symptoms.

To make it easier to understand, the usual signs of Trigonitis are the following:

  • Pain in the bladder
  • Dysuria: stinging pain during the urination, sometimes it includes difficulty to urinate
  • Hematuria: it refers to the presence of blood in urine
  • An abnormal increase in the frequency and the need to urinate (mostly at night)
  • A sensation of discomfort at the pelvic area

In some cases, the patient that suffers from this condition will display not only these symptoms but also urinary incontinence.


Sometimes this disease gets misdiagnosed. That occurs because of the symptoms of Trigonitis are pretty similar to the usual signs of Interstitial Cystitis.

The primary difference between these conditions is that the inflammation of the vesical trigone creates a cobblestone pattern, something absent from patients that suffer Interstitial Cystitis.

To diagnose Trigonitis, medical experts rely on a cystoscopic examination.

During this process, a long tube with the lens fixed in it gets inserted into the bladder through the urethra. By using this device, a doctor can examine the inside of the organ and look for signs of inflammation in the area.

Healthcare providers usually carry out with this procedure after providing the patient with a light sedative.

Trigonitis Treatment

There is no standard procedure to deal with Trigonitis, what works for one patient, might not be as effective in another case.

However, there are several medicines available to treat this disease. Anti-inflammatory medications and Anti-depressants at low dosages can reduce pain, and muscle relaxers help to relieve bladder spasms.

Another type of medication, medical experts prescribe, is the Antibiotics. But they recommend such medicines only when a bladder infection manifests along with the Trigonitis condition.

Doctors also prescribe anti-inflammatory medications as they can further reduce the pain and discomfort.

Aside from medicines, there is a procedure to deal with Trigonitis. To quickly relief the patient from the pain, doctors can use bladder instillation or bladder coating.

As a last resort, healthcare providers can use bladder augmentation surgery to treat Trigonitis.Through this procedure, doctors enhance the reservoir quantity of the bladder.

They accomplish this task by expanding the bladder. Medical experts remove strips of tissue from the intestinal tract and use them to add new sections to the bladder.

If this procedure fails, the last available choice is to perform a cystectomy, which is the complete removal of the bladder.